Why do my boobs hurt every month?

Breaking down breast pain: What’s normal & what’s not

Boobs. Why do your boobs hurt every month? For something that is essentially fatty tissue (like many other parts of our bodies), boy do they come with a lot of baggage! However you feel about them, though, if you’re a menstruating person, odds are they’ve caused you pain or discomfort at some point in your life. 

Let’s talk through your boob pain and one significant cause: Hormones.

Hormonal breast pain: a.k.a mastalgia or mastodynia

70% of people with breasts experience breast pain, also referred to as mastalgia or mastodynia, at some point.1 This pain in the breast can be a side effect of your menstrual cycle (cyclical breast pain) or, well, not (non-cyclical).2 This pain usually affects both breasts, but can be also felt in only one breast. Right now, we will discuss the type of breast pain originating from the menstrual cycle.

What causes hormonal breast pain?

Throughout the menstrual cycle, hormone levels and ratios fluctuate (read more about how the cycle works here). The two key hormones in the menstrual cycle are estrogen and progesterone, and it’s the ups and downs of these hormones that can cause your breasts to feel painful, lumpy, and swollen.3

But, why do my breasts hurt and feel heavy? In the weeks before your period starts, the sensation you may be feeling is the stimulation of your glands and milk ducts: They are increasing in size and number in case lactation becomes necessary.4 This makes the breasts swell and retain water, hence the breast tenderness and pain you feel.

Fibrocystic breast changes

While your menstrual period may be the real culprit, your hormonal breast pain may be exacerbated due to something called fibrocystic breast changes, which can cause cysts to develop in the breasts. Fibrocystic breast changes can also cause more prominent scar-like (fibrous) tissue, which can make breasts sore, tender, lumpy or ropy. Don’t freak out: it’s not as bad as it sounds.

These breast cysts can fill up with fluid. More fluid-filled cysts= more stretched tissue = more discomfort.5 

Here’s the thing: Fibrocystic breast changes happen to about half of AFAB (assigned female at birth) in their 20s through 50s and is generally not dangerous. It’s just uncomfortable and can sometimes cause nipple discharge.5 Of course, it’s always a good idea to check in with your healthcare provider if you’re concerned.

So, how do you know if your breast pain is hormonal?

Track it, baby! Cycle tracking is an awesome way to better understand your unique body. Because oftentimes the breasts are left out of the period convo, you may need to create your own section in the tracker to make a note of how your breasts feel over time.  

After a handful of cycles, you might notice a clear pattern like, ohhh my boobs KILL because I’m about to ovulate. COOL!

Okay. So you’ve tracked your symptoms, and yes, those painful boobs are because of your menstrual cycle. What’s a menstruator to do?

How to cope with hormonal breast pain

Always talk to your healthcare provider, first, if hormonal breast pain is starting to interfere with your day to day life. Your provider might recommend: 

  • Breast supportive bra (i.e. a specialized, well-fitting bra)
  • NSAIDs or over-the-counter painkillers
  • Cutting out the caffeine 
  • Dietary changes, such as reducing sodium intake
  • Vitamin E and/or Vitamin B-6 
  • Ice or heat therapy

In some cases, you may have a benign cyst that needs to be drained or removed. Check in with your provider if you think this could be the case. 

Could it be cancer? When to worry about breast pain

While we are used to pain = something really, really bad, breast pain actually isn’t typically the first sign of cancer.6 

Generally, the first symptom of breast cancer is a painless hard lump (like a frozen pea), which is why it is so important to do monthly breast checks.7 When doing a breast self-exam, remember to start at the armpit – you have breast tissue there!

If you ever do find a breast lump or aren’t sure if what you’re feeling could be a lump, check in with your health team. While pain typically isn’t the first symptom, if you do have pain that is unaccounted for and not cyclical, and/or located on a particular area of your breast, it’s always better to play it safe: Go get checked out. 

Written in partnership with: Allbodies.com

This article is informational only and is not offered as medical advice, nor does it substitute for a consultation with your physician. If you have any gynecological/medical concerns or conditions, please consult your physician. 

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